In 1811 a school of midwives was founded by Professor Chr. Fr. Deutsch at the obstetric clinic of Tartu University; that school of midwives is considered to be the predecessor of the present college.
Within about 200 years the college has been merged with different schools, had different names (the best known is the name Tartu Medical School/Tartu Meditsiinikool that was borne by the college in 1960–2005), and provided education and training in different specialist fields and at different levels.
Since 2005 the college has legally been functioning as a professional higher education institution; that change was possible due to the excellent results of international accreditation in 2004.
Teaching and study of the college has been conducted in different buildings, but from 2011 the THCC has its own study building. In 2008 the Government of the Republic made a decision on funding the construction of a new study building of the college and on 24 November 2010 the first stone of the building was laid. In 2011 the study building of the college was completed in Nooruse 5 with the EU funding. In 2011 architect Tarmo Piirmets was rewarded the annual award for the internal design of the college by the Estonian Association of Interior Architects.